Original Article

Dry Eye in Children with Chronic Renal Failure


  • Pınar Yüksekkaya
  • Emine Şen
  • Bengi Ece Kurtul

Received Date: 04.09.2013 Accepted Date: 24.12.2013 Turk J Ophthalmol 2014;44(3):196-200


To evaluate the dry eye symptoms based on objective test and subjective findings in children with chronic renal failure (CRF) and to compare the results with those in healthy subjects.

Materials and Methods:

Thirty-four children with CRF and 89 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. Tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test, subjective symptoms (burning, foreign-body sensation, hyperemia, itching, tearing), calcification of the conjunctiva, and corneal staining were evaluated. In the study group, relation between TBUT and Schirmer test results and duration of disease, duration of dialysis, serum calcium, phosphorus, urea, creatinine, and total protein levels were recorded. For statistical analysis, t-test, chi-square test, and Pearson’s correlation test were used.


In the study group, burning sensation was statistically higher than in the control group. Except this, according to the other subjective tests and corneal staining, there were no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Conjunctival calcification was seen in 3 patients in the study group. The mean Schirmer test result was 21.1±8.0 and 23.7±8.0 mm in the study and control groups, respectively (p=0.101). The mean TBUT was 12.5±5.2 seconds (s) in the study and 16.0±5.5 s in the control groups (p=0.002). None of the disease-related variables (the mean duration of disease and dialysis, serum calcium, phosphorus, urea, creatinine, and total protein levels) were associated with dry eye syndrome (p>0.05).


TBUT was statistically significantly lower, but Schirmet test result was not significantly different between children with CRF and age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The disease-related variables have no effect in the development of dry eyes.

Keywords: Child, chronic renal failure, dry eye, Schirmer test, tear break-up time

Full Text (Turkish)