Original Article

Incidence and risk factors of secondary glaucoma in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy - Original Article

  • Tülay Şimşek
  • Gölge Acaroğlu
  • Mehmet Çıtırık
  • Ufuk Elgin
  • Ali Bülent Çankaya
  • Naciye Kabataş

Received Date: 05.04.2009 Accepted Date: 30.06.2009 Turk J Ophthalmol 2009;39(5):386-391


To determine the incidence and risk factors of secondary glaucoma in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO).


178 eyes of 89 patients with TAO were included in the study. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including applanation tonometry, biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, color vision, Hertel exophthalmometry, visual evoked potentials and visual field. A detailed medical history was taken from all patients.


The study population consisted of 71 (80 %) females, and 18 (20 %) males. The median age of the patients was 41,0 years (range 19-81). Glaucoma was detected in 10 patients (11,2 %). Five of the 71 female patients (7 %) and 5 of 18 male patients had glaucoma (27,7 %). This difference reached to statistical significance (p= 0,026). There was a statistically significant difference in the age of the patients with and without glaucoma (p= 0,034). Clinical activity score was slightly higher in patients with glaucoma than other study population (mean score 3,4 versus 1,8 respectively). Intraocular pressures of all but one patient with glaucoma were controlled with anti-glaucomatous drugs during the follow-up period.


The incidence of secondary glaucoma in patients with TAO is determined as 11,2 %. High clinical activity score, advanced age and male sex are risk factors for the development of glaucoma. We recommend that patients with TAO; especially in advanced age, male sex and high clinical activity score should be screened for the presence of glaucoma.

Keywords: secondary glaucoma, thyroid associated orbitopathy, episcleral venous pressure

Full Text (Turkish)